Essex County Council Logo Unlocking Essex's Past - from Heritage Conservation at Essex County Council Unlocking Essex's Past Logo
 Home   Links   Help   Search   Feedback  EHER No. Search: GO
Home
  Monument Detail
Ready Made Searches

Display Monument

 Results List 
Monument Name Cressing Temple
SMR Number 6012
Summary Earliest English settlement of the Knights Templars.
Media
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Rivenhall Church
Rivenhall Church
Rivenhall Church
Rivenhall Church
Rivenhall Church
Rivenhall Church
Rivenhall Church
Rivenhall Church
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Rivenhall Church
Rivenhall Church
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Cressing Temple, Cressing, Braintree
Virtual model reconstruction of Cressing Temple Barns
Virtual model reconstruction of Cressing Temple Barns
Virtual model reconstruction of Cressing Temple
Virtual model reconstruction of Cressing Temple
Associated Media
Still from virtual model reconstruction of Tilbury Fort
Virtual model reconstruction of Cressing Temple
Description The RCHM dates the Barley Barn to the late 16th century and the Wheat Barn to the early 16th century.<1> Site of a chapel of the Knights Templars. Moat, in good condition, part wet when visited by the OS.<2><3> Earliest English settlement of the Knights Templars. They were given the manor in 1135. After the Templars were suppressed, Cressing went to the Hospitallers (in 1312). In 1515 the farm was leased to a private owner. 2 fine pre-Reformation barns survive. Pevsner suggests that the Barley Barn dates to c.1450 and the Wheat Barn to c.1530. Both are aisled.Source includes photos.<4> Cressing was donated to the Templars by Maud(Stephens Queen) in 1136. The house at Cressing was dissolved before 1381, the chapel surviving the Dissolution and it was intact in 1626.<5><6> OS regard the 'moat' as a chain of ponds, possibly forming a perimeter.There was no trace of a boundary feature to the north<2> in <5><24><25> The Barley Barn was built in c.1190, the Wheat Barn in c.1250. Both are timber framed.<8> Farm buildings south east of the court house are probably medieval in origin<9> According to <10><11> the earliest record of Cressing Temple is in a charter of donation of 1137, by Matilda, King Stephens wife. This would make it the second oldest preceptory after Temple Crowley in Oxfordshire.<12><13> The chapel survived until at least 1626 as Newcourt wrote that there was a chapel here then that was 10yds long x 6yds wide.<26><29><30> Excavations have been carried out on the preceptory site from 1978-1981. A medieval ditch containing residual Roman finds was assumed to be a leat from the main moat. A shallow fish pond containing 12th century pottery. East of the cellar of the Tudor house, gravel footings from a small chapel were found. Dated to the 12th century. No floor levels survived but inhumations were found inside and outside the building. Some predated the chapel, indicating a Saxon or Saxo-Norman cemetery.<14>-<19>Excavated areas shown in <20> Finds included glass vessels, knives, pottery and bronze mount<21> Other newspaper articles in SMR <22><23> (Other refs:<27><28>) In 1989 excavation revealed two early medieval ditches (one possibly the moat continuation); a medieval footing for a large building, post medieval and modern features. <31> A series of trenches, excavated between 1989 and 1994, revealed medieval and post medieval features . Large pits producing Hedingham ware and other medieval pottery together with quantities of slag and/or furnace lining.<32> Watching brief along the brick wall along the south front of the property revealde only post medieval contexts.<33> Watching brief in July 1989 revealed possible medieval pit.<34> Further watching briefs during maintenance works located only modern features.<35> The two great barns and the well, a stone lined structure 1.7m in diameter and 15m deep, still survive from the Templar period. Hope identified the rammed gravel foundations of the chapel and a corner of another stone building; these seem to have been preceeded by earlier (early Norman) timber structures. Hope surmised the stone building to be the Templar's hall or guest house, the extent of which has been revealed by both resistivity survey and parch marks visible in the dry summer of 1990. The single cell chapel stood to the north of the other excavated buildings and rammed gravel foundation. Three postholes cut by the 12th century chapel foundations are undated and suggest the presence of an earlier chapel.<36> Preliminary excavations in the Wheat Barn <37> and outside the northern corner of the Barley Barn <38> revealed extensive modern disturbance and the few possible medieval features found are difficult to interpret. Excavations in the granary <39><40><41> uncovered a circular tiled hearth, 1.65m across and indicate the presence of an earlier building there. Small-scale excavations since 1990 have added piecemeal to our knowledge of the medieval history, although most features revealed are of post-medieval or modern date.<42>
Monument Type(s) MOAT (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
CHAPEL (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
CEMETERY (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
PRECEPTORY (Dated 1136AD to 2050AD)
WALL (Dated 1400AD to 2050AD)
POND (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
AISLED BARN (Dated 1190AD to 2050AD)
AISLED BARN (Dated 1250AD to 2050AD)
Monument Class(es) BRICK
DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE
EARTHWORK
EXTANT BUILDING
Period 1066AD to 1539AD Medieval
Status Not Known
Administration Area CRESSING, BRAINTREE, ESSEX
National Grid Reference Square: TL71NE
Ref: 799186
Finds IRON KNIFE (Dated 1066AD To 1539AD)

GLASS VESSEL (Dated 1066AD To 1539AD)

POTTERY VESSEL (Dated 1100AD To 1600AD)

Events PART EXCAV by Hope, JH,

Gadd, D

Part excavation by Brown, N 1989

Part excavation by Robey, T 1990-1994

Field observations by Robey, T between 1989 - 1990

Sources <1> Desc Text : An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex - Volume 3 (RCHME) Dated : 1922

<10> Desc Text : The Knights Templar and the excavations at the cressing temple, 1978-81 (Hope, J) Dated : 1987

<11> Desc Text : Records of the Templars in England in the Twelfth Century (Lees, BA) pp.145-147 Dated : 1935

<12> Desc Text : The Knights Templar (Howarth, S) p.77 Dated : 1982

<13> Desc Text : Cressing Temple and Barns (Bennett, A) Dated : 1986

<14> Desc Text : Excavations in Essex, 1978 (Hope, JH in Eddy, MR) Dated : 1979

<15> Desc Text : Excavations in Essex, 1979 (Hope, JH in Eddy, MR) Dated : 1980

<16> Desc Text : Excavations in Essex, 1980 (Hope, JH in Eddy, MR) Dated : 1981

<17> Desc Text : Excavations in Essex, 1981 (Hope, JH in Priddy, DA) Dated : 1982

<18> Desc Text : Medieval Britain in 1980 (Hope, JH in Youngs, SM and Clark, J) Dated : 1981

<19> Desc Text : Excavations in Essex (Hope, JH) Dated : unknown

<2> RECORD SHEET/FORM : OS cards (Ordnance Survey) 1950 TL71NE18 Dated : unknown

<20> Map : SMR (unknown) Dated : unknown

<21> Desc Text : Uncovering the ghosts of the Warrior Priests (Hope, JH) Dated : 1978

<22> Desc Text : Witham school finds temple 18/7/79 (East Anglian Daily Times) Dated : 1979

<23> Desc Text : The Warrior Monks of Cressing (Braintree and Witham Times) Dated : 1978

<24> LIST : TL71-024 (MSRG) Dated : unknown

<25> RECORD SHEET/FORM : MSRG card (MSRG) TL71-024 Dated : unknown

<26> Desc Text : Essex Chapels (Fowler, RC) TEAS Dated : 1922

<27> Desc Text : Placenames of Essex (Reaney, PH) Dated : 1935

<28> Desc Text : Trans Essex Archaeol Soc (Trans Essex Archaeological Soc) Dated : unknown

<29> Desc Text : DESC TEXT by Newcourt (Newcourt) Vol 2 p.199 Dated : unknown

<3> RECORD SHEET/FORM : OS cards (Ordnance Survey) 1950 TL71NE19 Dated : unknown

<30> Desc Text : VCH (Victoria County History) Dated : unknown

<31> Desc Text : Cressing Temple Archaeology Project Summary (Robey, Tim) CTJH(CT78-80) Dated : unknown

<32> Monograph : Cressing Temple Archaeology Project Summary (Robey, Tim) CT A/B Dated : unknown

<33> Desc Text : Cressing Temple Archaeology Project Summary (Robey, Tim) CT8 Dated : unknown

<34> Desc Text : Excavations in Essex 1989 (Brown, P in Gilman, PJ) Vol 21 pp.130-1 Dated : 1990

<35> Desc Text : Cressing Temple Archaeology Project Summary (Robey, Tim) CT11 Dated : unknown

<36> Monograph : Cressing Temple Archaeology Project Summary (Robey, Tim) CT12 Dated : unknown

<37> Monograph : Cressing Temple Archaeology Project Summary (Robey, Tim) CT13 Dated : unknown

<38> Desc Text : Cressing Temple A Templar and Hospitaller Manor in Essex (Robey, Tim in Andrews, DD) Dated : 1993

<39> Monograph : Cressing Temple Archaeology Project Summary (Robey, Tim) CT23 Dated : unknown

<4> Desc Text : The Buildings of England, Essex (Pevsner, N) Dated : 1954

<40> Monograph : Cressing Temple Archaeology Project Summary (Robey, Tim) CT24 Dated : unknown

<41> Monograph : Cressing Temple Archaeology Project Summary (Robey, Tim) CT6 Dated : unknown

<42> Monograph : Cressing Temple Archaeology Project Summary (Robey, Tim) CT17 Dated : unknown

<43> Desc Text : Essex Archaeology and History Vol 25 (Bedwin, Owen) Dated : 1994

<44> Desc Text : Cressing Temple Archaeology Project Summaries (Robey, Tim and Crouch, Barry) Dated : unknown

<45> Excavation report : Proposed visitor centre, Cressing Temple: An Archaeological evaluation (Crouch, BJ and Robey, T) Dated : 1996

<5> Desc Text : SMR form unknown Dated : 1960 0nwards

<6> Desc Text : Medieval Religious Houses (Knowles, D and Hadcock, RN) Dated : 1971

<8> Mention : Cressing Temple, an Essex Manor (Cullen, FJ) Dated : unknown

<9> Desc Text : HBMC (Sherlock, D) Dated : 1985

 View on Map