||Hatfield Broad Oak Priory
||The parish church was once the western part of the church of a small priory, founded probably c1135 by Aubrey de Vere the Second (see 4333 for parish church and the east end of the priory church, excavated in 1897).
||The parish church was once the western part of the church of a small priory, founded probably c1135 by Aubrey de Vere the Second (see 4333 for parish church and the east end of the priory church, excavated in 1897). The plan of the domestic buildings was recovered by excavation but nothing is now visible. Fish ponds survive and numerous ditches, probably marking the extent of the precinct. <1> In 1897 with the assistance of the Society of Antiquaries, the whole plan of church and priory was exposed. In 1915 the foundations of the former were built up to the surface but are `now' covered again. For details see source 5. On 3 sides the enclosure was protected by a wall and ditch. On the W (NW of the church) the main entrance was defended by a gatehouse and a moat. Adjoining the gatehouse were stables, brewhouse, maltings and a barn (demolished 1904). The dovehouse (see 9150) was perhaps built on an old site. The house known to have existed W of the priory barn may have been the hall of the manor of `Priors'. <2> Transactions of Essex Archaeological Society references (see source 4, presumably, for 1897 excavations. <3> <4> `Now' no trace of buildings exposed during 1897 excavations. To the N three fish ponds are still waterfilled. The platform stead of the barn survives, also a mound at TL 54711680. The dry boundary ditches on the N and E average 5m wide x 1.2m deep. <6> in <5> Various plans in SMR. <7> Other refs: <8> <9>
Industrial Record number EX/AAG/SG18. <12>
The Benedictine Priory of Hatfield Broad Oak was founded c.1135 by Aubrey de Vere II, who was the Master Chamberlain and the Sheriff of Essex. It was established as a cell of the Abbey of St Melaine at Rennes in Brittany. Excavations in 1897, undertaken with the assistance of the Society of Antiquaries, recovered the whole plan of the church and priory. The Priory had been granted the tithes and land of the parish church. The new priory church was appended to the eastern wall of the original parish church, effectively forming a new choir and chancel and doubling the size of the original structure. To the north of the church were sited the cloister, refectory, chapter-house and other buildings. However, following a dispute between the parishioners and the priory in 1378, the parish and priory churches were divided by a wall across the nave and functioned as two separate churches. The Priory grounds were enclosed by a ditch and contained a barn or barns, a dovecote, a hall, brew-house, stables, gatehouse and a number of fishponds. Traces of these are still visible as earthworks. At the time of its Dissolution in 1536 it had a total population of thirty, substantial buildings and a financial interest in the market in the town. <13>
Site Management: = Scheduled Monument Consent granted in January 1988 for re-roofing of an agricultural barn, itself of no historical importance. <11>
Site Assessment = Earthworks well preserved under pasture. Brick and flint foundations visible Nov 1979. <5> Scheduled Area lies to N, NW and NE of the parish church and churchyard but does not include the eastern end of the priory church which was excavated in 1897, nor does it include much of the claustral buildings. Part of the precinct wall of the priory, west of the church, seems to be both Scheduled and Listed (see 9151, 9152). From the various accounts it is not clear how much is visible of the foundations.
Hatfield Broad Oak was an important malting centre in the early 18th century. The malthouse was part of a range of buildings including a gatehouse, stables, brewhouse and barn that stood to the west of the former priory; these were demolished in 1904. Fishponds and earthworks survive within the area of the precinct.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL: The plan form of the building and the footings for the kiln may survive.
SITE SIGNIFICANCE:The malthouse could be an early example of its type; it may also stand on the site of earlier buildings.
CURRENT STATUS: Within the area of a Scheduled Ancient Monument (ESSEX 156).
RECOMMENDED ACTION: Maintain existing status; the malthouse forms part of the priory complex and should be evaluated if it becomes threatened. <14>.
DOVECOTE (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
MALT HOUSE (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
FISHPOND (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
GARDEN (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
HOUSE (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
MOAT (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
BREWERY (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
PRIORY (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
PRIORY (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
WELL (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
BOUNDARY MARKER (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
BUILDING (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
GATEHOUSE (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
MOUND (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
STABLE (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
WALL (Dated 1066AD to 1539AD)
SUB SURFACE DEPOSIT
1066AD to 1539AD Medieval
||HATFIELD BROAD OAK, UTTLESFORD, ESSEX
National Grid Reference
PART EXCAV by Galpin, FW?,
Field visit to 4323 by Drewett, P, IAM on MAR-1972
Field visit to 4323 by Paterson, H, FMW on NOV-1979
Field visit to 4323 by Chant, K, FMW on JAN-1984
Malthouses in Essex
Field visit to 4323 by Paterson, H, FMW on JAN-1987
Field visit to 4323 by Paterson, H, FMW on JUL-1989
Field visit to 4323 by Paterson, H, FMW on APR-1992
Field visit to 4323 by Paterson, H, FMW on MAR-1993
Aerial Photo : 154-2, 3 (unknown) Dated : unknown
Aerial Photo : 157-14 (unknown) Dated : unknown
Aerial Photo : CP/97/42/12, 13, 15 (Tyler, Sue) Dated : 1997
<1> Desc Text : An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex - Volume 2 (RCHME) Vol 2, pp116-120 Dated : 1921
<10> Scheduling record : DOE Scheduled Ancient Monuments (Department of the Environment) Part ? Dated : unknown
<11> CORRESPONDENCE : SMR (Griffiths, P) in Scheduled Monument Consents file Dated : 1988
<12> PERSONAL OBSERVATION : smr/iris cross reference (Gould, Shane) Dated : unknown
<13> Desc Text : Hatfield Broad Oak: Historic Town Assssment Report (Medlycott, Maria) Dated : 1999
<14> Desc Text : The Essex Malt Industry: history, technology and architecture (Vol 1) (Gould, Shane) Dated : 1996
<2> RECORD SHEET/FORM : OS cards (Ordnance Survey) TL51NW23, 1950 Dated : unknown
<3> Desc Text : Trans Essex Archaeol Soc (Trans Essex Archaeological Soc) New Series, Vol 1, pp82-85 Dated : 1878
<4> Desc Text : Trans Essex Archaeol Soc (Trans Essex Archaeological Soc) New Series, Vol 6 Dated : unknown
<5> Desc Text : SMR form unknown Dated : 1960 0nwards
<6> RECORD SHEET/FORM : OS cards (Ordnance Survey) TL51NW23, 1973 Dated : unknown
<7> Mention : SMR (Various) Copies Dated : unknown
<8> Desc Text : Essex Rev (Galpin, FW) Vol 43 Dated : 1934
<9> Desc Text : Essex Rev (Galpin, FW) Vol 44 Dated : 1935